Brainfuck X

While browsing StackExchange PCG questions and answers, I came across a challenge regarding drawing the swiss flag. In particular, I was interested in benzene’s answer, in which they showcased a Brainfuck dialect capable of creating two-dimensional 24-bit color images. In this post I present this dialect with slight changes of my own, as well as an interpreter I wrote in Python 2.7 (source code is listed below and can also be downloaded).

Brainfuck X generated Swiss flagUrban Müller’s original Brainfuck (my vanilla Brainfuck post can be found here) works similar to a Turing machine, in that the memory consists of a theoretically infinitely large tape with individual cells which can be modified. What allows Brainfuck X (or Braindraw, as benzene called their dialect) to create color images is, that instead of a one-dimensional tape, a three-dimensional tape is used. This tape extends infinitely in two spacial dimensions and has three color planes. Each cell’s value is limited to a byte (an integer value from 0 to 255) which results in a 24-bit color depth.

Adding to Brainfucks eight commands (+-<>[].,), there are two characters to move up and down the tape (^v) and one character to move forwards in the color dimension (*). Starting on the red color plane, continuing with the green and ending in the blue. After the blue color plane, the color planes cycle and the red color plane is selected. benzene’s original language design which I altered slightly had three characters (rgb) to directly select a color plane. Whilst this version is supported by my interpreter (the flag --colorletters is necessary for that functionality), I find my color star more Brainfucky — directly calling color planes by their name seems nearly readable.
Brainfuck’s vanilla eight characters still work in the same way, Brainfuck X can thereby execute any vanilla Brainfuck program. Also, there still is a plaintext output — the tape’s image is a program’s secondary output.

Having executed the final Brainfuck instruction, the interpreter prints out the tape to the terminal — using ANSI escape codes. Because of this, the color depth is truncated in the terminal view, as there are only 216 colors supported.
For the full 24-bit color depth output, I use the highly inefficient Portable Pixmap Format (.ppm) as an output image file format. To open .ppm files, I recommend using the GNU Image Manipulation Program; specifying the output file name is done via the --output flag.

The Swiss flag image above was generated by benzene’s Braindraw code (see their StackExchange answer linked to above); the resulting .ppm file was then scaled and converted using GIMP.
Interpreter command: python swiss.bfx -l -o swiss.ppm


  • Being written in pure Python, the interpreter is completely controlled via the command line. The basic usage is python <source code file>; by using certain flags the functionality can be altered.
  • --input <input string>-i <input string> specifies Brainfuck’s input and is given as a byte stream (string).
  • --simplify, -s outputs the source code’s simplified version; the source code with all unnecessary characters removed.
  • --colorstar selects the color star color plane change model which is the default.
  • --colorletters, -l selects the color letter color plane change model.
  • --silent stops the interpreter from outputting warnings, infos and the final tape.
  • --maxcycles <cycles>, -m <cycles> defines the maximum number of cycles the Brainfuck program can run; the default is one million.
  • --watch, -w allows the user to watch the program’s execution.
  • --watchdelay <delay> defines the time in seconds the interpreter sleeps between each watch frame.
  • --watchskip <N> tells the interpreter to only show every Nth cycle of the execution.
  • --output <output file name>, -o <output file name> saves the final tape as a .ppm image file.

# Python 2.7 Code; Jonathan Frech, 24th, 25th of August 2017

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Cyclic Quine

A classic quine is a program which outputs its own source code.
At first, such a program’s existence seems weird if not impossible, as it has to be so self-referential that it knows about itself everything, including how to know about itself. However, writing quines is possible, if not trivial.

A cyclic quine therefore is a program which outputs source code which differs from its own source code, yet outputs the original source code when run (the cycle length could be greater than one). So when running source codes \Psi and \Phi, they output source codes \Phi and \Psi.

Therefore, when one saves the first program as and the second as, one can create both source codes from one another (the following bash commands will not change the files’ contents).

$ python >
$ python >
$ python | python >
$ python | python | python | python | python >

j=0;Q,q="j=1;Q,q={}{}{}.replace(str(j),str(int(not(int(j)))),1),chr(34);print Q.format(q,Q,q)".replace(str(j),str(int(not(int(j)))),1),chr(34);print Q.format(q,Q,q)
j=1;Q,q="j=1;Q,q={}{}{}.replace(str(j),str(int(not(int(j)))),1),chr(34);print Q.format(q,Q,q)".replace(str(j),str(int(not(int(j)))),1),chr(34);print Q.format(q,Q,q)

Double-Slit Experiment

Light is a fascinating thing in our universe. We perceive it as color, warmth and vision. Yet it does things one may not expect it to do. One of the experiments that called for a better physical model of light was the double slit experiment. In this experiment, a laser is shone through two closely adjacent slits and projected on the screen behind. Using old physical models, one would expect to see one or maybe two specs of light on the screen, when in reality there appear alternating dark and bright spots.

To explain why this seemingly strange phenomenon is occurring, one can either see light as photons and comprehend that a photon presumably follows every possible path there is in the entire universe and then — through it being observed — randomly chooses one path and thus creates stripes (according to the theory of quantum mechanics) or one can see light as simply being a wave.

For more information on the double-slit experiment, I refer to this Wikipedia entry.

The animation shown below describes light as a wave. The green vectors represent the light wave’s phase at the points on the light beam, the yellow vector represents the addition of both of the slit’s light beam’s phase when hitting the screen and the red dots at the screen represent the light’s brightness at that point (defined by the yellow vector’s length).
To create the animation, Python and a Python module called PIL were used to create single frames which were then stitched together by ImageMagick to create an animated gif.

Double-Slit Simulation (probably loading...)

# Jonathan Frech, 18th of January 2017
#          edited 19th of January 2017
#          edited 22nd of January 2017
#          edited 27th of January 2017

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